view Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt @ 524:7f8b544237bf

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Signed-off-by: Ian Campbell <ian.campbell@citrix.com>
author Keir Fraser <keir.fraser@citrix.com>
date Tue Apr 15 15:18:58 2008 +0100 (2008-04-15)
parents 831230e53067
line source
1 The Linux NTFS filesystem driver
2 ================================
5 Table of contents
6 =================
8 - Overview
9 - Web site
10 - Features
11 - Supported mount options
12 - Known bugs and (mis-)features
13 - Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
14 - The Device-Mapper driver
15 - The Software RAID / MD driver
16 - Limitiations when using the MD driver
17 - ChangeLog
20 Overview
21 ========
23 Linux-NTFS comes with a number of user-space programs known as ntfsprogs.
24 These include mkntfs, a full-featured ntfs filesystem format utility,
25 ntfsundelete used for recovering files that were unintentionally deleted
26 from an NTFS volume and ntfsresize which is used to resize an NTFS partition.
27 See the web site for more information.
29 To mount an NTFS 1.2/3.x (Windows NT4/2000/XP/2003) volume, use the file
30 system type 'ntfs'. The driver currently supports read-only mode (with no
31 fault-tolerance, encryption or journalling) and very limited, but safe, write
32 support.
34 For fault tolerance and raid support (i.e. volume and stripe sets), you can
35 use the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver. See section "Using Software RAID
36 with NTFS" for details.
39 Web site
40 ========
42 There is plenty of additional information on the linux-ntfs web site
43 at http://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net/
45 The web site has a lot of additional information, such as a comprehensive
46 FAQ, documentation on the NTFS on-disk format, informaiton on the Linux-NTFS
47 userspace utilities, etc.
50 Features
51 ========
53 - This is a complete rewrite of the NTFS driver that used to be in the 2.4 and
54 earlier kernels. This new driver implements NTFS read support and is
55 functionally equivalent to the old ntfs driver and it also implements limited
56 write support. The biggest limitation at present is that files/directories
57 cannot be created or deleted. See below for the list of write features that
58 are so far supported. Another limitation is that writing to compressed files
59 is not implemented at all. Also, neither read nor write access to encrypted
60 files is so far implemented.
61 - The new driver has full support for sparse files on NTFS 3.x volumes which
62 the old driver isn't happy with.
63 - The new driver supports execution of binaries due to mmap() now being
64 supported.
65 - The new driver supports loopback mounting of files on NTFS which is used by
66 some Linux distributions to enable the user to run Linux from an NTFS
67 partition by creating a large file while in Windows and then loopback
68 mounting the file while in Linux and creating a Linux filesystem on it that
69 is used to install Linux on it.
70 - A comparison of the two drivers using:
71 time find . -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \;
72 run three times in sequence with each driver (after a reboot) on a 1.4GiB
73 NTFS partition, showed the new driver to be 20% faster in total time elapsed
74 (from 9:43 minutes on average down to 7:53). The time spent in user space
75 was unchanged but the time spent in the kernel was decreased by a factor of
76 2.5 (from 85 CPU seconds down to 33).
77 - The driver does not support short file names in general. For backwards
78 compatibility, we implement access to files using their short file names if
79 they exist. The driver will not create short file names however, and a
80 rename will discard any existing short file name.
81 - The new driver supports exporting of mounted NTFS volumes via NFS.
82 - The new driver supports async io (aio).
83 - The new driver supports fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2).
84 - The new driver supports readv(2) and writev(2).
85 - The new driver supports access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
86 - The new driver supports truncate(2) and open(2) with O_TRUNC. But at present
87 only very limited support for highly fragmented files, i.e. ones which have
88 their data attribute split across multiple extents, is included. Another
89 limitation is that at present truncate(2) will never create sparse files,
90 since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for the
91 file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
92 - The new driver supports write(2) which can both overwrite existing data and
93 extend the file size so that you can write beyond the existing data. Also,
94 writing into sparse regions is supported and the holes are filled in with
95 clusters. But at present only limited support for highly fragmented files,
96 i.e. ones which have their data attribute split across multiple extents, is
97 included. Another limitation is that write(2) will never create sparse
98 files, since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for
99 the file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
101 Supported mount options
102 =======================
104 In addition to the generic mount options described by the manual page for the
105 mount command (man 8 mount, also see man 5 fstab), the NTFS driver supports the
106 following mount options:
108 iocharset=name Deprecated option. Still supported but please use
109 nls=name in the future. See description for nls=name.
111 nls=name Character set to use when returning file names.
112 Unlike VFAT, NTFS suppresses names that contain
113 unconvertible characters. Note that most character
114 sets contain insufficient characters to represent all
115 possible Unicode characters that can exist on NTFS.
116 To be sure you are not missing any files, you are
117 advised to use nls=utf8 which is capable of
118 representing all Unicode characters.
120 utf8=<bool> Option no longer supported. Currently mapped to
121 nls=utf8 but please use nls=utf8 in the future and
122 make sure utf8 is compiled either as module or into
123 the kernel. See description for nls=name.
125 uid=
126 gid=
127 umask= Provide default owner, group, and access mode mask.
128 These options work as documented in mount(8). By
129 default, the files/directories are owned by root and
130 he/she has read and write permissions, as well as
131 browse permission for directories. No one else has any
132 access permissions. I.e. the mode on all files is by
133 default rw------- and for directories rwx------, a
134 consequence of the default fmask=0177 and dmask=0077.
135 Using a umask of zero will grant all permissions to
136 everyone, i.e. all files and directories will have mode
137 rwxrwxrwx.
139 fmask=
140 dmask= Instead of specifying umask which applies both to
141 files and directories, fmask applies only to files and
142 dmask only to directories.
144 sloppy=<BOOL> If sloppy is specified, ignore unknown mount options.
145 Otherwise the default behaviour is to abort mount if
146 any unknown options are found.
148 show_sys_files=<BOOL> If show_sys_files is specified, show the system files
149 in directory listings. Otherwise the default behaviour
150 is to hide the system files.
151 Note that even when show_sys_files is specified, "$MFT"
152 will not be visible due to bugs/mis-features in glibc.
153 Further, note that irrespective of show_sys_files, all
154 files are accessible by name, i.e. you can always do
155 "ls -l \$UpCase" for example to specifically show the
156 system file containing the Unicode upcase table.
158 case_sensitive=<BOOL> If case_sensitive is specified, treat all file names as
159 case sensitive and create file names in the POSIX
160 namespace. Otherwise the default behaviour is to treat
161 file names as case insensitive and to create file names
162 in the WIN32/LONG name space. Note, the Linux NTFS
163 driver will never create short file names and will
164 remove them on rename/delete of the corresponding long
165 file name.
166 Note that files remain accessible via their short file
167 name, if it exists. If case_sensitive, you will need
168 to provide the correct case of the short file name.
170 disable_sparse=<BOOL> If disable_sparse is specified, creation of sparse
171 regions, i.e. holes, inside files is disabled for the
172 volume (for the duration of this mount only). By
173 default, creation of sparse regions is enabled, which
174 is consistent with the behaviour of traditional Unix
175 filesystems.
177 errors=opt What to do when critical filesystem errors are found.
178 Following values can be used for "opt":
179 continue: DEFAULT, try to clean-up as much as
180 possible, e.g. marking a corrupt inode as
181 bad so it is no longer accessed, and then
182 continue.
183 recover: At present only supported is recovery of
184 the boot sector from the backup copy.
185 If read-only mount, the recovery is done
186 in memory only and not written to disk.
187 Note that the options are additive, i.e. specifying:
188 errors=continue,errors=recover
189 means the driver will attempt to recover and if that
190 fails it will clean-up as much as possible and
191 continue.
193 mft_zone_multiplier= Set the MFT zone multiplier for the volume (this
194 setting is not persistent across mounts and can be
195 changed from mount to mount but cannot be changed on
196 remount). Values of 1 to 4 are allowed, 1 being the
197 default. The MFT zone multiplier determines how much
198 space is reserved for the MFT on the volume. If all
199 other space is used up, then the MFT zone will be
200 shrunk dynamically, so this has no impact on the
201 amount of free space. However, it can have an impact
202 on performance by affecting fragmentation of the MFT.
203 In general use the default. If you have a lot of small
204 files then use a higher value. The values have the
205 following meaning:
206 Value MFT zone size (% of volume size)
207 1 12.5%
208 2 25%
209 3 37.5%
210 4 50%
211 Note this option is irrelevant for read-only mounts.
214 Known bugs and (mis-)features
215 =============================
217 - The link count on each directory inode entry is set to 1, due to Linux not
218 supporting directory hard links. This may well confuse some user space
219 applications, since the directory names will have the same inode numbers.
220 This also speeds up ntfs_read_inode() immensely. And we haven't found any
221 problems with this approach so far. If you find a problem with this, please
222 let us know.
225 Please send bug reports/comments/feedback/abuse to the Linux-NTFS development
226 list at sourceforge: linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net
229 Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
230 =================================
232 For support of volume and stripe sets, you can either use the kernel's
233 Device-Mapper driver or the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver. The former is
234 the recommended one to use for linear raid. But the latter is required for
235 raid level 5. For striping and mirroring, either driver should work fine.
238 The Device-Mapper driver
239 ------------------------
241 You will need to create a table of the components of the volume/stripe set and
242 how they fit together and load this into the kernel using the dmsetup utility
243 (see man 8 dmsetup).
245 Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, has been tested and works fine. Even
246 though untested, there is no reason why stripe sets, i.e. raid level 0, and
247 mirrors, i.e. raid level 1 should not work, too. Stripes with parity, i.e.
248 raid level 5, unfortunately cannot work yet because the current version of the
249 Device-Mapper driver does not support raid level 5. You may be able to use the
250 Software RAID / MD driver for raid level 5, see the next section for details.
252 To create the table describing your volume you will need to know each of its
253 components and their sizes in sectors, i.e. multiples of 512-byte blocks.
255 For NT4 fault tolerant volumes you can obtain the sizes using fdisk. So for
256 example if one of your partitions is /dev/hda2 you would do:
258 $ fdisk -ul /dev/hda
260 Disk /dev/hda: 81.9 GB, 81964302336 bytes
261 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9964 cylinders, total 160086528 sectors
262 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
264 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
265 /dev/hda1 * 63 4209029 2104483+ 83 Linux
266 /dev/hda2 4209030 37768814 16779892+ 86 NTFS
267 /dev/hda3 37768815 46170809 4200997+ 83 Linux
269 And you would know that /dev/hda2 has a size of 37768814 - 4209030 + 1 =
270 33559785 sectors.
272 For Win2k and later dynamic disks, you can for example use the ldminfo utility
273 which is part of the Linux LDM tools (the latest version at the time of
274 writing is linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2). You can download it from:
275 http://linux-ntfs.sourceforge.net/downloads.html
276 Simply extract the downloaded archive (tar xvjf linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2), go
277 into it (cd linux-ldm-0.0.8) and change to the test directory (cd test). You
278 will find the precompiled (i386) ldminfo utility there. NOTE: You will not be
279 able to compile this yourself easily so use the binary version!
281 Then you would use ldminfo in dump mode to obtain the necessary information:
283 $ ./ldminfo --dump /dev/hda
285 This would dump the LDM database found on /dev/hda which describes all of your
286 dynamic disks and all the volumes on them. At the bottom you will see the
287 VOLUME DEFINITIONS section which is all you really need. You may need to look
288 further above to determine which of the disks in the volume definitions is
289 which device in Linux. Hint: Run ldminfo on each of your dynamic disks and
290 look at the Disk Id close to the top of the output for each (the PRIVATE HEADER
291 section). You can then find these Disk Ids in the VBLK DATABASE section in the
292 <Disk> components where you will get the LDM Name for the disk that is found in
293 the VOLUME DEFINITIONS section.
295 Note you will also need to enable the LDM driver in the Linux kernel. If your
296 distribution did not enable it, you will need to recompile the kernel with it
297 enabled. This will create the LDM partitions on each device at boot time. You
298 would then use those devices (for /dev/hda they would be /dev/hda1, 2, 3, etc)
299 in the Device-Mapper table.
301 You can also bypass using the LDM driver by using the main device (e.g.
302 /dev/hda) and then using the offsets of the LDM partitions into this device as
303 the "Start sector of device" when creating the table. Once again ldminfo would
304 give you the correct information to do this.
306 Assuming you know all your devices and their sizes things are easy.
308 For a linear raid the table would look like this (note all values are in
309 512-byte sectors):
311 --- cut here ---
312 # Offset into Size of this Raid type Device Start sector
313 # volume device of device
314 0 1028161 linear /dev/hda1 0
315 1028161 3903762 linear /dev/hdb2 0
316 4931923 2103211 linear /dev/hdc1 0
317 --- cut here ---
319 For a striped volume, i.e. raid level 0, you will need to know the chunk size
320 you used when creating the volume. Windows uses 64kiB as the default, so it
321 will probably be this unless you changes the defaults when creating the array.
323 For a raid level 0 the table would look like this (note all values are in
324 512-byte sectors):
326 --- cut here ---
327 # Offset Size Raid Number Chunk 1st Start 2nd Start
328 # into of the type of size Device in Device in
329 # volume volume stripes device device
330 0 2056320 striped 2 128 /dev/hda1 0 /dev/hdb1 0
331 --- cut here ---
333 If there are more than two devices, just add each of them to the end of the
334 line.
336 Finally, for a mirrored volume, i.e. raid level 1, the table would look like
337 this (note all values are in 512-byte sectors):
339 --- cut here ---
340 # Ofs Size Raid Log Number Region Should Number Source Start Taget Start
341 # in of the type type of log size sync? of Device in Device in
342 # vol volume params mirrors Device Device
343 0 2056320 mirror core 2 16 nosync 2 /dev/hda1 0 /dev/hdb1 0
344 --- cut here ---
346 If you are mirroring to multiple devices you can specify further targets at the
347 end of the line.
349 Note the "Should sync?" parameter "nosync" means that the two mirrors are
350 already in sync which will be the case on a clean shutdown of Windows. If the
351 mirrors are not clean, you can specify the "sync" option instead of "nosync"
352 and the Device-Mapper driver will then copy the entirey of the "Source Device"
353 to the "Target Device" or if you specified multipled target devices to all of
354 them.
356 Once you have your table, save it in a file somewhere (e.g. /etc/ntfsvolume1),
357 and hand it over to dmsetup to work with, like so:
359 $ dmsetup create myvolume1 /etc/ntfsvolume1
361 You can obviously replace "myvolume1" with whatever name you like.
363 If it all worked, you will now have the device /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1
364 which you can then just use as an argument to the mount command as usual to
365 mount the ntfs volume. For example:
367 $ mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1 /mnt/myvol1
369 (You need to create the directory /mnt/myvol1 first and of course you can use
370 anything you like instead of /mnt/myvol1 as long as it is an existing
371 directory.)
373 It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the volume has been setup
374 correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the ntfs
375 volume.
378 The Software RAID / MD driver
379 -----------------------------
381 An alternative to using the Device-Mapper driver is to use the kernel's
382 Software RAID / MD driver. For which you need to set up your /etc/raidtab
383 appropriately (see man 5 raidtab).
385 Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, as well as stripe sets, i.e. raid level
386 0, have been tested and work fine (though see section "Limitiations when using
387 the MD driver with NTFS volumes" especially if you want to use linear raid).
388 Even though untested, there is no reason why mirrors, i.e. raid level 1, and
389 stripes with parity, i.e. raid level 5, should not work, too.
391 You have to use the "persistent-superblock 0" option for each raid-disk in the
392 NTFS volume/stripe you are configuring in /etc/raidtab as the persistent
393 superblock used by the MD driver would damange the NTFS volume.
395 Windows by default uses a stripe chunk size of 64k, so you probably want the
396 "chunk-size 64k" option for each raid-disk, too.
398 For example, if you have a stripe set consisting of two partitions /dev/hda5
399 and /dev/hdb1 your /etc/raidtab would look like this:
401 raiddev /dev/md0
402 raid-level 0
403 nr-raid-disks 2
404 nr-spare-disks 0
405 persistent-superblock 0
406 chunk-size 64k
407 device /dev/hda5
408 raid-disk 0
409 device /dev/hdb1
410 raid-disl 1
412 For linear raid, just change the raid-level above to "raid-level linear", for
413 mirrors, change it to "raid-level 1", and for stripe sets with parity, change
414 it to "raid-level 5".
416 Note for stripe sets with parity you will also need to tell the MD driver
417 which parity algorithm to use by specifying the option "parity-algorithm
418 which", where you need to replace "which" with the name of the algorithm to
419 use (see man 5 raidtab for available algorithms) and you will have to try the
420 different available algorithms until you find one that works. Make sure you
421 are working read-only when playing with this as you may damage your data
422 otherwise. If you find which algorithm works please let us know (email the
423 linux-ntfs developers list linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net or drop in on
424 IRC in channel #ntfs on the irc.freenode.net network) so we can update this
425 documentation.
427 Once the raidtab is setup, run for example raid0run -a to start all devices or
428 raid0run /dev/md0 to start a particular md device, in this case /dev/md0.
430 Then just use the mount command as usual to mount the ntfs volume using for
431 example: mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/myntfsvolume
433 It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the md volume has been
434 setup correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the
435 ntfs volume.
438 Limitiations when using the Software RAID / MD driver
439 -----------------------------------------------------
441 Using the md driver will not work properly if any of your NTFS partitions have
442 an odd number of sectors. This is especially important for linear raid as all
443 data after the first partition with an odd number of sectors will be offset by
444 one or more sectors so if you mount such a partition with write support you
445 will cause massive damage to the data on the volume which will only become
446 apparent when you try to use the volume again under Windows.
448 So when using linear raid, make sure that all your partitions have an even
449 number of sectors BEFORE attempting to use it. You have been warned!
451 Even better is to simply use the Device-Mapper for linear raid and then you do
452 not have this problem with odd numbers of sectors.
455 ChangeLog
456 =========
458 Note, a technical ChangeLog aimed at kernel hackers is in fs/ntfs/ChangeLog.
460 2.1.27:
461 - Implement page migration support so the kernel can move memory used
462 by NTFS files and directories around for management purposes.
463 - Add support for writing to sparse files created with Windows XP SP2.
464 - Many minor improvements and bug fixes.
465 2.1.26:
466 - Implement support for sector sizes above 512 bytes (up to the maximum
467 supported by NTFS which is 4096 bytes).
468 - Enhance support for NTFS volumes which were supported by Windows but
469 not by Linux due to invalid attribute list attribute flags.
470 - A few minor updates and bug fixes.
471 2.1.25:
472 - Write support is now extended with write(2) being able to both
473 overwrite existing file data and to extend files. Also, if a write
474 to a sparse region occurs, write(2) will fill in the hole. Note,
475 mmap(2) based writes still do not support writing into holes or
476 writing beyond the initialized size.
477 - Write support has a new feature and that is that truncate(2) and
478 open(2) with O_TRUNC are now implemented thus files can be both made
479 smaller and larger.
480 - Note: Both write(2) and truncate(2)/open(2) with O_TRUNC still have
481 limitations in that they
482 - only provide limited support for highly fragmented files.
483 - only work on regular, i.e. uncompressed and unencrypted files.
484 - never create sparse files although this will change once directory
485 operations are implemented.
486 - Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
487 2.1.24:
488 - Support journals ($LogFile) which have been modified by chkdsk. This
489 means users can boot into Windows after we marked the volume dirty.
490 The Windows boot will run chkdsk and then reboot. The user can then
491 immediately boot into Linux rather than having to do a full Windows
492 boot first before rebooting into Linux and we will recognize such a
493 journal and empty it as it is clean by definition.
494 - Support journals ($LogFile) with only one restart page as well as
495 journals with two different restart pages. We sanity check both and
496 either use the only sane one or the more recent one of the two in the
497 case that both are valid.
498 - Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
499 2.1.23:
500 - Stamp the user space journal, aka transaction log, aka $UsnJrnl, if
501 it is present and active thus telling Windows and applications using
502 the transaction log that changes can have happened on the volume
503 which are not recorded in $UsnJrnl.
504 - Detect the case when Windows has been hibernated (suspended to disk)
505 and if this is the case do not allow (re)mounting read-write to
506 prevent data corruption when you boot back into the suspended
507 Windows session.
508 - Implement extension of resident files using the normal file write
509 code paths, i.e. most very small files can be extended to be a little
510 bit bigger but not by much.
511 - Add new mount option "disable_sparse". (See list of mount options
512 above for details.)
513 - Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors and strange boot sectors
514 in particular.
515 - Fix various bugs including a nasty deadlock that appeared in recent
516 kernels (around 2.6.11-2.6.12 timeframe).
517 2.1.22:
518 - Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors.
519 - Fix various bugs and race conditions.
520 2.1.21:
521 - Fix several race conditions and various other bugs.
522 - Many internal cleanups, code reorganization, optimizations, and mft
523 and index record writing code rewritten to fit in with the changes.
524 - Update Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt with instructions on how to
525 use the Device-Mapper driver with NTFS ftdisk/LDM raid.
526 2.1.20:
527 - Fix two stupid bugs introduced in 2.1.18 release.
528 2.1.19:
529 - Minor bugfix in handling of the default upcase table.
530 - Many internal cleanups and improvements. Many thanks to Linus
531 Torvalds and Al Viro for the help and advice with the sparse
532 annotations and cleanups.
533 2.1.18:
534 - Fix scheduling latencies at mount time. (Ingo Molnar)
535 - Fix endianness bug in a little traversed portion of the attribute
536 lookup code.
537 2.1.17:
538 - Fix bugs in mount time error code paths.
539 2.1.16:
540 - Implement access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
541 - Implement fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2) system calls.
542 - Enable the readv(2) and writev(2) system calls.
543 - Enable access via the asynchronous io (aio) API by adding support for
544 the aio_read(3) and aio_write(3) functions.
545 2.1.15:
546 - Invalidate quotas when (re)mounting read-write.
547 NOTE: This now only leave user space journalling on the side. (See
548 note for version 2.1.13, below.)
549 2.1.14:
550 - Fix an NFSd caused deadlock reported by several users.
551 2.1.13:
552 - Implement writing of inodes (access time updates are not implemented
553 yet so mounting with -o noatime,nodiratime is enforced).
554 - Enable writing out of resident files so you can now overwrite any
555 uncompressed, unencrypted, nonsparse file as long as you do not
556 change the file size.
557 - Add housekeeping of ntfs system files so that ntfsfix no longer needs
558 to be run after writing to an NTFS volume.
559 NOTE: This still leaves quota tracking and user space journalling on
560 the side but they should not cause data corruption. In the worst
561 case the charged quotas will be out of date ($Quota) and some
562 userspace applications might get confused due to the out of date
563 userspace journal ($UsnJrnl).
564 2.1.12:
565 - Fix the second fix to the decompression engine from the 2.1.9 release
566 and some further internals cleanups.
567 2.1.11:
568 - Driver internal cleanups.
569 2.1.10:
570 - Force read-only (re)mounting of volumes with unsupported volume
571 flags and various cleanups.
572 2.1.9:
573 - Fix two bugs in handling of corner cases in the decompression engine.
574 2.1.8:
575 - Read the $MFT mirror and compare it to the $MFT and if the two do not
576 match, force a read-only mount and do not allow read-write remounts.
577 - Read and parse the $LogFile journal and if it indicates that the
578 volume was not shutdown cleanly, force a read-only mount and do not
579 allow read-write remounts. If the $LogFile indicates a clean
580 shutdown and a read-write (re)mount is requested, empty $LogFile to
581 ensure that Windows cannot cause data corruption by replaying a stale
582 journal after Linux has written to the volume.
583 - Improve time handling so that the NTFS time is fully preserved when
584 converted to kernel time and only up to 99 nano-seconds are lost when
585 kernel time is converted to NTFS time.
586 2.1.7:
587 - Enable NFS exporting of mounted NTFS volumes.
588 2.1.6:
589 - Fix minor bug in handling of compressed directories that fixes the
590 erroneous "du" and "stat" output people reported.
591 2.1.5:
592 - Minor bug fix in attribute list attribute handling that fixes the
593 I/O errors on "ls" of certain fragmented files found by at least two
594 people running Windows XP.
595 2.1.4:
596 - Minor update allowing compilation with all gcc versions (well, the
597 ones the kernel can be compiled with anyway).
598 2.1.3:
599 - Major bug fixes for reading files and volumes in corner cases which
600 were being hit by Windows 2k/XP users.
601 2.1.2:
602 - Major bug fixes aleviating the hangs in statfs experienced by some
603 users.
604 2.1.1:
605 - Update handling of compressed files so people no longer get the
606 frequently reported warning messages about initialized_size !=
607 data_size.
608 2.1.0:
609 - Add configuration option for developmental write support.
610 - Initial implementation of file overwriting. (Writes to resident files
611 are not written out to disk yet, so avoid writing to files smaller
612 than about 1kiB.)
613 - Intercept/abort changes in file size as they are not implemented yet.
614 2.0.25:
615 - Minor bugfixes in error code paths and small cleanups.
616 2.0.24:
617 - Small internal cleanups.
618 - Support for sendfile system call. (Christoph Hellwig)
619 2.0.23:
620 - Massive internal locking changes to mft record locking. Fixes
621 various race conditions and deadlocks.
622 - Fix ntfs over loopback for compressed files by adding an
623 optimization barrier. (gcc was screwing up otherwise ?)
624 Thanks go to Christoph Hellwig for pointing these two out:
625 - Remove now unused function fs/ntfs/malloc.h::vmalloc_nofs().
626 - Fix ntfs_free() for ia64 and parisc.
627 2.0.22:
628 - Small internal cleanups.
629 2.0.21:
630 These only affect 32-bit architectures:
631 - Check for, and refuse to mount too large volumes (maximum is 2TiB).
632 - Check for, and refuse to open too large files and directories
633 (maximum is 16TiB).
634 2.0.20:
635 - Support non-resident directory index bitmaps. This means we now cope
636 with huge directories without problems.
637 - Fix a page leak that manifested itself in some cases when reading
638 directory contents.
639 - Internal cleanups.
640 2.0.19:
641 - Fix race condition and improvements in block i/o interface.
642 - Optimization when reading compressed files.
643 2.0.18:
644 - Fix race condition in reading of compressed files.
645 2.0.17:
646 - Cleanups and optimizations.
647 2.0.16:
648 - Fix stupid bug introduced in 2.0.15 in new attribute inode API.
649 - Big internal cleanup replacing the mftbmp access hacks by using the
650 new attribute inode API instead.
651 2.0.15:
652 - Bug fix in parsing of remount options.
653 - Internal changes implementing attribute (fake) inodes allowing all
654 attribute i/o to go via the page cache and to use all the normal
655 vfs/mm functionality.
656 2.0.14:
657 - Internal changes improving run list merging code and minor locking
658 change to not rely on BKL in ntfs_statfs().
659 2.0.13:
660 - Internal changes towards using iget5_locked() in preparation for
661 fake inodes and small cleanups to ntfs_volume structure.
662 2.0.12:
663 - Internal cleanups in address space operations made possible by the
664 changes introduced in the previous release.
665 2.0.11:
666 - Internal updates and cleanups introducing the first step towards
667 fake inode based attribute i/o.
668 2.0.10:
669 - Microsoft says that the maximum number of inodes is 2^32 - 1. Update
670 the driver accordingly to only use 32-bits to store inode numbers on
671 32-bit architectures. This improves the speed of the driver a little.
672 2.0.9:
673 - Change decompression engine to use a single buffer. This should not
674 affect performance except perhaps on the most heavy i/o on SMP
675 systems when accessing multiple compressed files from multiple
676 devices simultaneously.
677 - Minor updates and cleanups.
678 2.0.8:
679 - Remove now obsolete show_inodes and posix mount option(s).
680 - Restore show_sys_files mount option.
681 - Add new mount option case_sensitive, to determine if the driver
682 treats file names as case sensitive or not.
683 - Mostly drop support for short file names (for backwards compatibility
684 we only support accessing files via their short file name if one
685 exists).
686 - Fix dcache aliasing issues wrt short/long file names.
687 - Cleanups and minor fixes.
688 2.0.7:
689 - Just cleanups.
690 2.0.6:
691 - Major bugfix to make compatible with other kernel changes. This fixes
692 the hangs/oopses on umount.
693 - Locking cleanup in directory operations (remove BKL usage).
694 2.0.5:
695 - Major buffer overflow bug fix.
696 - Minor cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.12.
697 2.0.4:
698 - Cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.11.
699 2.0.3:
700 - Small bug fixes, cleanups, and performance improvements.
701 2.0.2:
702 - Use default fmask of 0177 so that files are no executable by default.
703 If you want owner executable files, just use fmask=0077.
704 - Update for kernel 2.5.9 but preserve backwards compatibility with
705 kernel 2.5.7.
706 - Minor bug fixes, cleanups, and updates.
707 2.0.1:
708 - Minor updates, primarily set the executable bit by default on files
709 so they can be executed.
710 2.0.0:
711 - Started ChangeLog.