view Documentation/usb/dma.txt @ 897:329ea0ccb344

balloon: try harder to balloon up under memory pressure.

Currently if the balloon driver is unable to increase the guest's
reservation it assumes the failure was due to reaching its full
allocation, gives up on the ballooning operation and records the limit
it reached as the "hard limit". The driver will not try again until
the target is set again (even to the same value).

However it is possible that ballooning has in fact failed due to
memory pressure in the host and therefore it is desirable to keep
attempting to reach the target in case memory becomes available. The
most likely scenario is that some guests are ballooning down while
others are ballooning up and therefore there is temporary memory
pressure while things stabilise. You would not expect a well behaved
toolstack to ask a domain to balloon to more than its allocation nor
would you expect it to deliberately over-commit memory by setting
balloon targets which exceed the total host memory.

This patch drops the concept of a hard limit and causes the balloon
driver to retry increasing the reservation on a timer in the same
manner as when decreasing the reservation.

Also if we partially succeed in increasing the reservation
(i.e. receive less pages than we asked for) then we may as well keep
those pages rather than returning them to Xen.

Signed-off-by: Ian Campbell <ian.campbell@citrix.com>
author Keir Fraser <keir.fraser@citrix.com>
date Fri Jun 05 14:01:20 2009 +0100 (2009-06-05)
parents 831230e53067
line source
1 In Linux 2.5 kernels (and later), USB device drivers have additional control
2 over how DMA may be used to perform I/O operations. The APIs are detailed
3 in the kernel usb programming guide (kerneldoc, from the source code).
8 The big picture is that USB drivers can continue to ignore most DMA issues,
9 though they still must provide DMA-ready buffers (see DMA-mapping.txt).
10 That's how they've worked through the 2.4 (and earlier) kernels.
12 OR: they can now be DMA-aware.
14 - New calls enable DMA-aware drivers, letting them allocate dma buffers and
15 manage dma mappings for existing dma-ready buffers (see below).
17 - URBs have an additional "transfer_dma" field, as well as a transfer_flags
18 bit saying if it's valid. (Control requests also have "setup_dma" and a
19 corresponding transfer_flags bit.)
21 - "usbcore" will map those DMA addresses, if a DMA-aware driver didn't do
23 don't manage dma mappings for URBs.
25 - There's a new "generic DMA API", parts of which are usable by USB device
26 drivers. Never use dma_set_mask() on any USB interface or device; that
27 would potentially break all devices sharing that bus.
32 It's good to avoid making CPUs copy data needlessly. The costs can add up,
33 and effects like cache-trashing can impose subtle penalties.
35 - When you're allocating a buffer for DMA purposes anyway, use the buffer
36 primitives. Think of them as kmalloc and kfree that give you the right
37 kind of addresses to store in urb->transfer_buffer and urb->transfer_dma,
38 while guaranteeing that no hidden copies through DMA "bounce" buffers will
39 slow things down. You'd also set URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP in
40 urb->transfer_flags:
42 void *usb_buffer_alloc (struct usb_device *dev, size_t size,
43 int mem_flags, dma_addr_t *dma);
45 void usb_buffer_free (struct usb_device *dev, size_t size,
46 void *addr, dma_addr_t dma);
48 For control transfers you can use the buffer primitives or not for each
49 of the transfer buffer and setup buffer independently. Set the flag bits
51 buffers you have prepared. For non-control transfers URB_NO_SETUP_DMA_MAP
52 is ignored.
54 The memory buffer returned is "dma-coherent"; sometimes you might need to
55 force a consistent memory access ordering by using memory barriers. It's
56 not using a streaming DMA mapping, so it's good for small transfers on
57 systems where the I/O would otherwise tie up an IOMMU mapping. (See
58 Documentation/DMA-mapping.txt for definitions of "coherent" and "streaming"
59 DMA mappings.)
61 Asking for 1/Nth of a page (as well as asking for N pages) is reasonably
62 space-efficient.
64 - Devices on some EHCI controllers could handle DMA to/from high memory.
65 Driver probe() routines can notice this using a generic DMA call, then
66 tell higher level code (network, scsi, etc) about it like this:
68 if (dma_supported (&intf->dev, 0xffffffffffffffffULL))
69 net->features |= NETIF_F_HIGHDMA;
71 That can eliminate dma bounce buffering of requests that originate (or
72 terminate) in high memory, in cases where the buffers aren't allocated
73 with usb_buffer_alloc() but instead are dma-mapped.
78 Existing buffers aren't usable for DMA without first being mapped into the
79 DMA address space of the device.
81 - When you're using scatterlists, you can map everything at once. On some
82 systems, this kicks in an IOMMU and turns the scatterlists into single
83 DMA transactions:
85 int usb_buffer_map_sg (struct usb_device *dev, unsigned pipe,
86 struct scatterlist *sg, int nents);
88 void usb_buffer_dmasync_sg (struct usb_device *dev, unsigned pipe,
89 struct scatterlist *sg, int n_hw_ents);
91 void usb_buffer_unmap_sg (struct usb_device *dev, unsigned pipe,
92 struct scatterlist *sg, int n_hw_ents);
94 It's probably easier to use the new usb_sg_*() calls, which do the DMA
95 mapping and apply other tweaks to make scatterlist i/o be fast.
97 - Some drivers may prefer to work with the model that they're mapping large
98 buffers, synchronizing their safe re-use. (If there's no re-use, then let
99 usbcore do the map/unmap.) Large periodic transfers make good examples
100 here, since it's cheaper to just synchronize the buffer than to unmap it
101 each time an urb completes and then re-map it on during resubmission.
103 These calls all work with initialized urbs: urb->dev, urb->pipe,
104 urb->transfer_buffer, and urb->transfer_buffer_length must all be
105 valid when these calls are used (urb->setup_packet must be valid too
106 if urb is a control request):
108 struct urb *usb_buffer_map (struct urb *urb);
110 void usb_buffer_dmasync (struct urb *urb);
112 void usb_buffer_unmap (struct urb *urb);
114 The calls manage urb->transfer_dma for you, and set URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP
115 so that usbcore won't map or unmap the buffer. The same goes for
116 urb->setup_dma and URB_NO_SETUP_DMA_MAP for control requests.